Friday, March 02, 2007

With the spectre of a national election haunting the collective Australian psyche it was interesting to read Judith Wheeldon's article in the WEEKEND AUSTRALIAN 3-4 th of March, 2007. The title of the article sums up our collective dilemma: Labor the lesser evil. Are we only offered to choose or make the best of a bad situation? Wheeldons assertions regarding the inherent dangers of a National Curriculum (especially one based on narrow short term thinking) is at best divisive, costly and erosive of intellectual diversity on a national level.
Whilst I feel that standardization of marks whether it be on a personal level or a national level has merit these indicators are just that and nothing more . They are a general guide of a direction tendency or outcome and they are only accurate as these if the sum of the wisdom of the parts of the intent, scope, outcomes and diversity of the tests for the marks that are being standardized.

The Kounin Model:
Withitness, Alerting, and Group Management.

* The ripple effect: when you correct one pupil's behavior, it tends to change the behavior of others.
* The teacher needs to be with it to know what is going on everywhere in the room at all times.
* Smooth transitions between activities and maintaining momentum are key to effective group management.
* Optimal learning takes place when teachers keep pupils alert and held accountable for learning.
* Boredom [satiation] can be avoided by providing variety to lessons, the classroom environment and by pupil awareness of progress.

The Neo-Skinnerian Model:
Shaping Desired Behavior. B.F. Skinner is the father of the behavioral school of psychology. A recently popular outgrowth of Skinnerian behaviorism is Behavior Modification. For a useful presentation, see the section on the Behavioral Systems Family in Joyce and Weil, Models of Teaching, particularly the introduction to the section and chapters on "Learning Self-Control" and "Assertive Training."

* Behavior is conditioned by its consequences. Behavior is strengthened if followed immediately by reinforcement. Behavior is weakened if it is not reinforced. ["Extinction."] Behavior is also weakened if it is followed by punishment.
* In the beginning stages of learning, reinforcement provided every time the behavior occurs produces the best results.
* Behavior can be maintained by irregular reinforcement.� Reinforcers include verbal approval, smiles, "thumbs up," high grades, free reading time, goodies, prizes and awards.

The Ginott Model:
Addressing the Situation with Sane Messages.

* Discipline is little-by-little, step-by-step. The teacher's self-discipline is key. Model the behavior you want in students.
* Use sane messages when correcting misbehavior. Address what the student is doing, don't attack the student's character [personal traits]. Labeling disables.
* Use communication that is congruentwith student's own feelings about the situation and themselves.
* Invite cooperation rather than demanding it.
* Teachers should express their feelings--anger--but in sane ways. "What you are doing makes me very angry. I need you to ...."
* Sarcasm is hazardous.
* Praise can be dangerous; praise the act, not the student and in a situation that will not turn peers against the pupil.
* Apologies are meaningless unless it is clear that the person intends to improve.
* Teachers are at their best when they help pupils developtheir self-esteem and to trust their own experience.

The Glasser Model:
Good Behavior Comes from Good Choices. Glasser's recent work focuses on the class meeting as a means of developing class-wide discipline. See the chapter on The Classroom Meeting in Joyce and Weil, Models of Teaching. [For those who have their classes under control and would like to try to go beyond teacher-imposed discipline, William Glasser's approach is worth serious consideration.

* Students are rational beings capable of controlling their own behavior.�
* Help pupils learn to make good choices, since good choices produce good behavior.�
* Do not accept excuses for bad behavior. Ask, "What choices did you have? Why did you make that choice? Did you like the result? What have you learned?"�
* Reasonable consequences should always follow good or bad student behavior.
o [Usually developed in classroom meetings,] class rules are essential to a good learning climate, they must be enforced.
o Classroom meetings are a good way to develop and maintain class behavior. [The group diagnoses the problem and seeks solutions.]

The Dreikurs Model:
Confronting Mistaken Goals.

* Discipline is not punishment. It means self-control.
* The teacher's role is helping pupils to impose limits on themselves.
* Teachers can model democratic behavior by providing guidance and leadership and involving pupils in setting rules and consequences.
* All students want to belong. Their behavior is directed to belonging.
* Misbehavior is the result of their mistaken belief that it will gain them peer recognition. [It is usually a mistake to assume that misbehavior is an attack directed at the teacher.]
* Misbehavior is directed at mistaken goals: attention-getting, power-seeking, revenge, and displaying inadequacy. The trick is to identify the goal and act in ways that do not reinforce mistaken goals.�
* Teachers should encourage students' efforts, but avoid praising their work [?] or character. [Others disagree.]
* Support the idea that negative consequences follow �inappropriate behavior by your actions.

hope you like this on discipline models
a bit on Bourdieu
Pierre Bourdieu (August 1, 1930 – January 23, 2002) was an acclaimed French sociologist whose work employed methods drawn from a wide range of disciplines: from philosophy and literary theory to sociology and anthropology. He is best known for his book Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste, in which he tried to connect aesthetic judgments to positions in social space. The most notable aspect of Bourdieu's theory is the development of methodologies, combining both theory and empirical data, that attempt to dissolve some of the most troublesome antagonisms in theory and research, trying to reconcile such difficulties as how to understand the subject within objective structures (in the process, trying to reconcile structure and agency).

Bourdieu also pioneered methodological frameworks and terminologies such as cultural, social, and symbolic capital, and the concepts of habitus, field, and symbolic violence. Bourdieu's work emphasized the role of practice and embodiment in social dynamics. It builds upon the theories of Ludwig Wittgenstein, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Edmund Husserl, Georges Canguilhem, Karl Marx, Gaston Bachelard, Max Weber, Emile Durkheim, and Norbert Elias, among others
Suggestions for Application of Maslow's Theory to Education

Very interesting stuff


* reduced & free lunch programs
* correct room temperatures
* bathroom breaks
* drink breaks


* well planned lessons, carried out in an orderly fashion
* controlled classroom behaviors
* emergency procedures well planned, discussed & practiced
* fair discipline
* consistent expectations
* attitude of teacher: accepting & non-judgemental, pleasant, non-threatening
* provide praise for correct responses instead of punishment for incorrect responses

Love & Belonging

With regard to teacher-student relationships

* teacher personality: empathetic, considerate & interested in the individual, patient, fair, able to self-disclose, positive attitude, good listener
* use one-on-one instruction
* use teacher conferencing
* provide positive comments & feedback rather than negative
* get to know students (likes, dislikes, concerns)
* be available for students in need
* listen to students
* be supportive
* have personal helpers on rotating basis
* show that you value students thoughts, opinions & judgments
* show trust of students by providing situation where it is necessary (ex. running errands, classroom leader)

With regard to student-student relationships

* class meetings
* class discussions
* peer tutoring
* provide situations requiring mutual trust
* show & tell, sharing



* develop new knowledge based on background knowledge so as to help ensure success (scaffolding)
* pace instruction to fit individual need
* focus on strengths & assets
* take individual needs & abilities into account when planning lessons and carrying them out
* teach to the multiple modes of learning
* teach & model learning strategies
* base new teaching, strategies & plans on learning outcomes
* be alert to student difficulties & intervene as soon as possible
* be available & approachable so students having difficulties feel comfortable coming for help
* involve all students in class participation & responsibilities
* when necessary to discipline a child, do as privately as possible

Respect from others

* develop a classroom environment where students are positive & nonjudgmental
* star of the week
* award programs for jobs well done
* providing deserved positions of status
* recognition programs for special effort (ex. helpful citizens of the week)
* develop & carry out a curriculum to encourage children to be empathetic & good listeners
* employ cooperative learning in such a way as to develop trust between group members
* involve students in activities of importance & worthiness (ex. cleaning up the environment, carrying out a food drive for the needy)

Knowledge & Understanding

* allow students time to explore areas of curiosity
* provide lessons that are intellectually challenging
* plan lessons that connect areas of learning & have students compare and contrast to search for relationships
* use a discovery approach to learning whenever possible
* have students approach topics of learning from various angles
* provide opportunities for philosophical thought & discussion
* get students involved in intellectually challenging programs (ex. Odyssey of the Mind)


* organize classroom materials in a neat & appealing way
* display student art work in an appealing manner
* put up interesting & colorful wall hangings
* replace overly worn classroom materials periodically
* create varied appealing & interesting learning centers
* rooms painted in pleasing colors
* large window areas
* well maintained physical surroundings (ex. keeping walls painted, desks clean & repaired etc.)
* clean rooms
* fresh smelling rooms


* expect students to do their best
* give students freedom to explore & discover on their own
* make learning meaningful--connect to "real" life
* plan lessons involving metacognitive activities
* get students involved in self-expressive projects
* allow students to be involved in creative activities & projects
tony this is the article on motivation. its the article I was telling you about, how the yr 8 feel devalued etc good oil
Jigsaw Strategy

Jigsaw Cooperative Groups

JIGSAW GROUPS FOSTER UNDERSTANDING among students from a variety of racial, ethnic, and educational backgrounds. This learning method enables teachers to effectively respond to a diverse student population by promoting academic achievement and cross-cultural understanding. Jigsaw groups facilitate learning because each student is responsible for a particular piece of a task and then is responsible to contribute his/her portion of the task to bring about mutual interdependence.
Set up jigsaw groups

The Set Up

To create five groups of four students, have each student sit in his/her regular seat and number off each student one through five. Next, call all students that were given the number one to sit at a table together, then the twos, threes, etc. The groups should be diverse in terms of gender, ethnicity, race, and ability.

Student and Group Roles

Divide the task into four segments. For example, in a project about the California Gold Rush, you may divide the lesson into the following topics: 1) Businesses that began as a result of the Gold Rush, 2) How they panned for gold, 3) Who were the gold seekers who moved to California, and 4) Where were the successful gold mines.

Assign each student in each group one of the four segments. Students who are assigned the same segment may meet to form an "expert group." The members of each expert group work together to learn the topic, making sure each member understands the information. During this time, the experts construct a plan to teach their topic to the members of their jigsaw cooperative group.

Final Outcome

Students then return to their jigsaw cooperative group. Each student teaches his or her topic to the members of the group. There is a sense of positive interdependence among the members of the groups. To demonstrate knowledge, each jigsaw group may present a summary of their understanding to the whole class.
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